The effect of cooling prior to and during exercise on exercise performance and capacity in the heat: a meta-analysis

TYLER, C.J., SUNDERLAND, C. and CHEUNG, S.S., 2014. The effect of cooling prior to and during exercise on exercise performance and capacity in the heat: a meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49 (1), pp. 7-13. ISSN 1473-0480

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Abstract

Exercise is impaired in hot, compared to moderate, conditions. The development of hyperthermia is strongly linked to the impairment and as a result, many different strategies have been investigated to combat this. This meta-analysis focused on one of the most popular strategies: cooling. Pre-cooling has received the most attention but more recently cooling applied during the bout of exercise has also been investigated and both were reviewed. We conducted a literature search and retrieved twenty-eight articles which investigated the effect of cooling administered either prior to (n=23) or during (n=5) an exercise test in hot (WBGT >26°C) conditions. Mean and weighted effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were calculated. Overall, pre-cooling has a moderate (d=0.73) effect on subsequent performance but the magnitude of the effect is dependent upon the nature of the test. Sprint performance is impaired (d=-0.26) but intermittent performance and prolonged exercise are both improved following cooling (d=0.47 and d=1.91 respectively). Cooling during exercise also has a positive effect on performance and capacity (d=0.76). Improvements were observed in studies with and without cooling-induced physiological alterations and the literature supports the suggestion of a dose-response relationship between cooling, thermal strain and improvements in performance and capacity. In summary, pre-cooling can improve subsequent intermittent and prolonged exercise performance and capacity in a hot environment but sprint performance is impaired. Cooling during exercise also has a positive effect on exercise performance and capacity in a hot environment.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Creators: Tyler, C.J., Sunderland, C. and Cheung, S.S.
Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group
Date: 2014
Volume: 49
Number: 1
ISSN: 1473-0480
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.1136/bjsports-2012-091739DOI
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Depositing User: EPrints Services
Date Added: 09 Oct 2015 10:15
Last Modified: 23 Aug 2016 09:09
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/10045

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