Cronobacter, the emergent bacterial pathogen Enterobacter sakazakii comes of age; MLST and whole genome sequence analysis

Forsythe, S.J. ORCID: 0000-0002-6709-0712, Dickins, B. ORCID: 0000-0002-0866-6232 and Jolley, K.A., 2014. Cronobacter, the emergent bacterial pathogen Enterobacter sakazakii comes of age; MLST and whole genome sequence analysis. BMC Genomics, 15 (1), p. 1121. ISSN 1471-2164

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Abstract

Background: Following the association of Cronobacter spp. to several publicized fatal outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units of meningitis and necrotising enterocolitis, the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2004 requested the establishment of a molecular typing scheme to enable the international control of the organism. This paper presents the application of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) to Cronobacter which has led to the establishment of the Cronobacter PubMLST genome and sequence definition database (http://pubmlst.org/ cronobacter/) containing over 1000 isolates with metadata along with the recognition of specific clonal lineages linked to neonatal meningitis and adult infections Results: Whole genome sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) has supports the formal recognition of the genus Cronobacter composed of seven species to replace the former single species Enterobacter sakazakii. Applyingthe 7-loci MLST scheme to 1007 strains revealed 298 definable sequence types, yet only C. sakazakii clonal complex 4 (CC4) was principally associated with neonatal meningitis. This clonal lineage has been confirmed using ribosomal-MLST (51-loci) and whole genome-MLST (1865 loci) to analyse 107 whole genomes via the Cronobacter PubMLST database. This database has enabled the retrospective analysis of historic cases and outbreaks following re-identification of those strains. Conclusions: The Cronobacter PubMLST database offers a central, open access, reliable sequence-based repository for researchers. It has the capacity to create new analysis schemes 'on the fly', and to integrate metadata (source, geographic distribution, clinical presentation). It is also expandable and adaptable to changes in taxonomy, and able to support the development of reliable detection methods of use to industry and regulatory authorities. Therefore it meets the WHO (2004) request for the establishment of a typing scheme for this emergent bacterial pathogen. Whole genome sequencing has additionally shown a range of potential virulence and environmental fitness traits which may account for the association of C. sakazakii CC4 pathogenicity, and propensity for neonatal CNS.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: BMC Genomics
Creators: Forsythe, S.J., Dickins, B. and Jolley, K.A.
Publisher: BioMed Central
Date: 2014
Volume: 15
Number: 1
ISSN: 1471-2164
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.1186/1471-2164-15-1121DOI
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Depositing User: Linda Sullivan
Date Added: 16 Feb 2016 16:07
Last Modified: 09 Jun 2017 13:59
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/26981

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