KASHANI, O., 2012. Regulating competitive balance in sport. PhD, Nottingham Trent University.
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Sport is an integral part of popular culture, capturing the hearts and minds of millions of people from every section of society 1. Maintaining competitive balance in sport is essential in preserving its long term survival. A higher uncertainty of outcome in contests is likely to result in greater spectator demand and increased revenues; whereas an imbalanced competition will eventually lead to a decline in attendance and the overall quality of the sport. The regulation of competitive balance in individual sports is difficult to implement, as success relies largely on the athlete’s individual skill and ability 2. In contrast, team sports can be influenced by a number of regulatory measures such as player drafts, salary caps, transfer windows, and player quotas. Analysis into Europe and North America’s regulation of competitive balance reveals a variety of measures used to foster greater equality of opportunity between teams competing with one another in sport. Unfortunately European sports are restricted somewhat, as access to sport is considered to be a social advantage and importance for the integration of citizens, and therefore cannot remain outside the scope of the fundamental principles of free movement. Although the European Union accepts the ‘specificity of sport’, it grants no exception from European Union law for the industry; a principle that has recently been reaffirmed in the decisions of Bosman 3 and Meca-Medina 4. Sports governing bodies must therefore ensure new rules and regulatory measures comply with European Union law; reducing the number of measures available to them.
|Rights:||This work is the intellectual property of the author Oscar Kashani. You may copy up to 5% of this work for private study, or personal, non-commercial research. Any re-use of the information contained within this document should be fully referenced, quoting the author, title, university, degree level and pagination. Queries or requests for any other use, or if a more substantial copy is required, should be directed in the owner of the Intellectual Property Rights.|
|Divisions:||Schools > Nottingham Law School|
|Depositing User:||EPrints Services|
|Date Added:||09 Oct 2015 09:35|
|Last Modified:||09 Oct 2015 09:35|
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