Temperature dependence of magnetic resonance probes for use as embedded sensors in constructed wetlands

Hughes-Riley, T. ORCID: 0000-0001-8020-430X, Dye, E.R., Ortega Anderez, D., Hill-Casey, F., Newton, M.I. ORCID: 0000-0003-4231-1002 and Morris, R.H., 2016. Temperature dependence of magnetic resonance probes for use as embedded sensors in constructed wetlands. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 241, pp. 19-26. ISSN 0924-4247

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Abstract

Constructed wetlands are now accepted as an environmentally friendly means of wastewater treatment however, their effectiveness can be limited by excessive clogging of the pores within the gravel matrix, making this an important parameter to monitor. It has previously been shown that the clog state can be characterised using magnetic resonance (MR) relaxation parameters with permanent magnet based sensors. One challenge with taking MR measurements over a time scale on the order of years is that seasonal temperature fluctuations will alter both the way that the sensor operates as well as the relaxation times recorded. Without an understanding of how the sensor will behave under different temperature conditions, meaningful information about the clog state cannot be successfully extracted from a wetland. This work reports the effect of temperature on a permanent magnet based MR sensor to determine if the received signal intensity is significantly compromised as a result of large temperature changes, and whether meaningful relaxation data can be extracted over the temperature range of interest. To do this, the central magnetic field of the sensor was monitored as a function of temperature, showing an expected linear relationship. Signal intensity was measured over a range of temperatures (5 °C to 44 °C) for which deterioration at high and low temperatures compared to room temperature was observed. The sensor was still operable at the extremes of this range and the reason for the signal loss has been studied and explained. Spin-lattice relaxation time measurements using the sensor at different temperatures have also been taken on a water sample and seem to agree with literature values. Further to this, measurements have been taken in an operational wetland over the course of 203 days and have shown a linear dependence with temperature as would be expected. This work concluded that the sensor can perform the task of measuring the spin-lattice relaxation time over the required temperature range making it suitable for long-term application in constructed wetlands.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Sensors and Actuators A: Physical
Creators: Hughes-Riley, T., Dye, E.R., Ortega Anderez, D., Hill-Casey, F., Newton, M.I. and Morris, R.H.
Publisher: Elsevier
Date: 1 February 2016
Volume: 241
ISSN: 0924-4247
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.1016/j.sna.2016.01.050DOI
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Depositing User: Jonathan Gallacher
Date Added: 04 Apr 2016 09:58
Last Modified: 12 Oct 2017 13:17
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/27288

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