Sex differences in adolescents’ glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to high and low glycaemic index breakfasts: a randomised control trial

Cooper, SB ORCID: 0000-0001-5219-5020, Dring, KJ, Morris, JG ORCID: 0000-0001-6508-7897, Cousins, BEW, Nute, ML and Nevill, ME ORCID: 0000-0003-2498-9493, 2017. Sex differences in adolescents’ glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to high and low glycaemic index breakfasts: a randomised control trial. British Journal of Nutrition. ISSN 0007-1145

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Abstract

During puberty young people undergo significant hormonal changes which affect metabolism and, subsequently, health. Evidence suggests there is a period of transient pubertal insulin resistance, with this effect greater in girls than boys. However, the response to everyday high and low glycaemic index (GI) meals remains unknown. Following ethical approval, forty adolescents consumed a high GI or low GI breakfast, in a randomised cross-over design. Capillary blood samples were taken during a 2-h postprandial period, examining the glycaemic and
insulinaemic responses. Maturity offset and homoeostatic model assessment (HOMA) were also calculated. The glycaemic response to the breakfasts was similar between boys and girls, as shown by similar peak blood glucose concentrations and incremental AUC (IAUC) following
both high and low GI breakfasts (all P> 0·05). Girls exhibited a higher peak plasma insulin concentration 30 min post-breakfast following both high GI (P=0·043, g=0·69) and low GI (P =0·010, g =0·84) breakfasts, as well as a greater IAUC following high GI (P=0·041, g =0·66) and low GI (P =0·041, g =0·66) breakfasts. HOMA was positively correlated with the insulinaemic responses (all P<0·0005) and maturity offset (P =0·037). The findings of the present study suggest that pubertal insulin resistance affects the postprandial insulinaemic responses to both high and low GI meals. Specifically, girls exhibit a greater insulinaemic response than boys to both meals, despite similar glycaemic responses.
This study is the first to report the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to everyday meals in boys and girls, supporting the recommendation for young people to base their diet on low GI carbohydrates.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: British Journal of Nutrition
Creators: Cooper, S.B., Dring, K.J., Morris, J.G., Cousins, B.E.W., Nute, M.L. and Nevill, M.E.
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Date: 13 March 2017
ISSN: 0007-1145
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.1017/S0007114517000447DOI
Rights: © The Authors 2017.
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Depositing User: Jill Tomkinson
Date Added: 15 Mar 2017 13:29
Last Modified: 09 Jun 2017 14:13
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/30389

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