Reduced energy availability: implications for bone health in physically active populations

Papageorgiou, M., Dolan, E., Elliott-Sale, K.J. ORCID: 0000-0003-1122-5099 and Sale, C. ORCID: 0000-0002-5816-4169, 2017. Reduced energy availability: implications for bone health in physically active populations. European Journal of Nutrition. ISSN 1436-6207

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Abstract

Purpose: The present review critically evaluates existing literature on the effects of short- and long-term low energy availability (EA) on bone metabolism and health in physically active individuals.
Methods: We reviewed the literature on the short-term effects of low EA on markers of bone metabolism and the long-term effects of low EA on outcomes relating to bone health (bone mass, microarchitecture and strength, bone metabolic markers and stress fracture injury risk) in physically active individuals.
Results: Available evidence indicates that short-term low EA may increase markers of bone resorption and decrease markers of bone formation in physically active women. Bone metabolic marker responses to low EA are less well known in physically active men. Cross-sectional studies investigating the effects of long-term low EA suggest that physically active individuals who have low EA present with lower bone mass, altered bone metabolism (favouring bone resorption), reduced bone strength and increased risk for stress fracture injuries.
Conclusions: Reduced EA has a negative influence on bone in both the short- and long-term, and every effort should be made to reduce its occurrence in physically active individuals. Future interventions are needed to explore the effects of long-term reduced EA on bone health outcomes, while short-term low EA studies are also required to give insight into the pathophysiology of bone alterations.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: European Journal of Nutrition
Creators: Papageorgiou, M., Dolan, E., Elliott-Sale, K.J. and Sale, C.
Publisher: Springer Medizin
Date: 18 July 2017
ISSN: 1436-6207
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.1007/s00394-017-1498-8DOI
1498Publisher Item Identifier
Divisions: Schools > School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences
Depositing User: Jonathan Gallacher
Date Added: 25 Jul 2017 08:26
Last Modified: 25 Jul 2017 08:27
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/31285

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