Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D in immobilisation: Part A - Modulation of appendicular mass content, composition and structure

Bostock, E.L. ORCID: 0000-0001-9340-8459, Morse, C.I., Winwood, K., McEwan, I.M. and Onambélé-Pearson, G.L., 2017. Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D in immobilisation: Part A - Modulation of appendicular mass content, composition and structure. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 21 (1), pp. 51-58. ISSN 1279-7707

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Abstract

Objectives:
Muscle size decreases in response to short-term limb immobilisation. This study set out to determine whether two potential protein-sparing modulators (eicosapentaenoic acid and vitamin D) would attenuate immobilisation-induced changes in muscle characteristics.

Design:
The study used a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled design.

Setting:
The study took part in a laboratory setting.

Participants:
Twenty-four male and female healthy participants, aged 23.0±5.8 years.

Intervention:
The non-dominant arm was immobilised in a sling for a period of nine waking hours a day over two continuous weeks. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: placebo (n=8, Lecithin, 2400 mg daily), omega-3 (ω-3) fatty acids (n=8, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA); 1770 mg, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); 390 mg, daily) or vitamin D (n=8, 1,000 IU daily).

Measurements:
Muscle and sub-cutaneous adipose thickness (B-mode ultrasonography), body composition (DXA) and arm girth (anthropometry) were measured before immobilisation, immediately on removal of the sling and two weeks after re-mobilisation.

Results:
Muscle thickness (-5.4±4.3%), upper and lower arm girth (-1.3±0.4 and -0.8±0.8%, respectively), lean mass (-3.6±3.7%) and bone mineral content (BMC) (-2.3±1.5%) decreased significantly with limb immobilisation in the placebo group (P<0.05). Despite no significant effect of group, ω-3 and vitamin D supplementation showed trends (p>0.05) towards attenuating the decreases in muscle thickness, upper/lower arm girths and BMC observed in the placebo group. The ω-3 supplementation group demonstrated a non-significant attenuation of the decrease in DXA quantified lean mass observed in the placebo group. Sub-cutaneous adipose thickness increased in the placebo group (P<0.05). ω-3 and vitamin D both blunted this response, with ω-3 having a greater effect (P<0.05). All parameters had returned to baseline values at the re-mobilisation phase of the study.

Conclusion:
Overall, at the current doses, ω-3 and vitamin D supplementation only attenuated one of the changes associated with non-injurious limb immobilisation. These findings would necessitate further research into either a) supplementation linked to injury-induced immobilisation, or b) larger doses of these supplements to confirm/refute the physiological reserve potential of the two supplements.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
Creators: Bostock, E.L., Morse, C.I., Winwood, K., McEwan, I.M. and Onambélé-Pearson, G.L.
Publisher: Springer Paris
Date: January 2017
Volume: 21
Number: 1
ISSN: 1279-7707
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.1007/s12603-016-0710-5DOI
710Publisher Item Identifier
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Depositing User: Jill Tomkinson
Date Added: 27 Feb 2019 16:46
Last Modified: 27 Feb 2019 16:46
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/35838

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