Chemical structures of oligosaccharides in milks of the American black bear (Ursus americanus americanus) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

Urashima, T., Umewaki, M., Taufik, E., Ohshima, T., Fukuda, K., Saito, T., Whitehouse-Tedd, K. ORCID: 0000-0003-0061-489X, Budd, J. and Oftedal, O., 2020. Chemical structures of oligosaccharides in milks of the American black bear (Ursus americanus americanus) and cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus). Glycoconjugate Journal, 37, pp. 57-76. ISSN 0282-0080

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Abstract

The milk oligosaccharides were studied for two species of the Carnivora: the American black bear (Ursus americanus, family Ursidae, Caniformia), and the cheetah, (Acinonyx jubatus, family Felidae, Feliformia). Lactose was the most dominant saccharide in cheetah milk, while this was a minor saccharide and milk oligosaccharides predominated over lactose in American black bear milk. The structures of 8 neutral saccharides from American black bear milk were found to be Gal(β1-4)Glc (lactose), Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)Glc (2’-fucosyllactose), Gal(α1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (isoglobotriose), Gal(α1-3)[Fuc(α1-2)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (B-tetrasaccharide), Gal(α1-3)[Fuc(α1-2)]Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]Glc (B-pentasaccharide), Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (difucosyl lacto-N-neotetraose), Gal(α1-3)Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (monogalactosyl monofucosyl lacto-N-neotetraose) and Gal(α1-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc. Structures of 5 acidic saccharides were also identified in black bear milk: Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3’-sialyllactose), Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)[Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (monosialyl monofucosyl lacto-N-neohexaose), Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)[Gal(α1-3)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (monosialyl monogalactosyl lacto-N-neohexaose), Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3){Gal(α1-3)Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-6)}Gal(β1-4)Glc (monosialyl monogalactosyl monofucosyl lacto-N-neohexaose), and Neu5Ac(α2-6)Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3){Gal(α1-3)[Fuc(α1-2)]Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc(β1-6)}Gal(β1-4)Glc (monosialyl monogalactosyl difucosyl lacto-N-neohexaose). A notable feature of some of these milk oligosaccharides is the presence of B-antigen (Gal(α1-3)[Fuc(α1-2)]Gal), α-Gal epitope (Gal(α1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc(NAc)) and Lewis x (Gal(β1-4)[Fuc(α1-3)]GlcNAc) structures within oligosaccharides. By comparison to American black bear milk, cheetah milk had a much smaller array of oligosaccharides. Two cheetah milks contained Gal(α1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (isoglobotriose), while another cheetah milk did not, but contained Gal(β1-6)Gal(β1-4)Glc (6’-galactosyllactose) and Gal(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (3’-galactosyllactose). Two cheetah milks contained Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-3)[Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc(β1-6)]Gal(β1-4)Glc (lacto-N-neohexaose), and one cheetah milk contained Gal(β1-4)Glc-3’-O-sulfate. Neu5Ac(α2-8)Neu5Ac(α2-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (disialyllactose) was the only sialyl oligosaccharide identified in cheetah milk. The heterogeneity of milk oligosaccharides was found between both species with respect of the presence/absence of B-antigen and Lewis x. The variety of milk oligosaccharides was much greater in the American black bear than in the cheetah. The ratio of milk oligosaccharides-to-lactose was lower in cheetah (1:1-1:2) than American black bear (21:1) which is likely a reflection of the requirement for a dietary supply of N-acetyl neuraminic acid (sialic acid), in altricial ursids compared to more precocial felids, given the role of these oligosaccharides in the synthesis of brain gangliosides and the polysialic chains on neural cell adhesion.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Glycoconjugate Journal
Creators: Urashima, T., Umewaki, M., Taufik, E., Ohshima, T., Fukuda, K., Saito, T., Whitehouse-Tedd, K., Budd, J. and Oftedal, O.
Publisher: Springer
Date: 2020
Volume: 37
ISSN: 0282-0080
Identifiers:
NumberType
1246522Other
10.1007/s10719-019-09899-7DOI
Divisions: Schools > School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences
Depositing User: Linda Sullivan
Date Added: 02 Dec 2019 11:18
Last Modified: 19 Jun 2020 14:36
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/38681

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