Evaluations of the peroxidative susceptibilities of cod liver oils by a 1H NMR analysis strategy: peroxidative resistivity of a natural collagenous and biogenic amine-rich fermented product

Percival, B.C., Wann, A., Zbasnik, R., Schlegel, V., Edgar, M., Zhang, J., Ampem, G., Wilson, P. ORCID: 0000-0003-0207-2246, Le Gresley, A., Naughton, D. and Grootveld, M., 2020. Evaluations of the peroxidative susceptibilities of cod liver oils by a 1H NMR analysis strategy: peroxidative resistivity of a natural collagenous and biogenic amine-rich fermented product. Nutrients, 12 (3): 753. ISSN 2072-6643

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Abstract

High-resolution 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis was employed to molecularly screen the lipid, lipid oxidation product (LOP), and antioxidant compositions of four natural (unrefined) cod liver oil (CLO) products. Products 1–3 were non-fermented CLOs, whilst Product 4 was isolated from pre-fermented cod livers. Supporting analytical data that were acquired included biogenic amine, flavanone, tannin, phenolic antioxidant, α-tocopherol, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) determinations by recommended HPLC, LC/MS/MS, or spectrophotometric methods. SDS-PAGE, HPLC, and 1H NMR analyses investigated and determined collagenous antioxidants and their molecular mass ranges. 1H NMR analysis of aldehydic LOPs was employed to explore the susceptibilities/resistivities of each CLO product to peroxidation that is induced by thermal stressing episodes (TSEs) at 180°C, or following prolonged (42 day) storage episodes at 4 and 23 °C. Product 4 displayed extremely high ORAC values, which were much greater than those of Products 1–3, and that were predominantly ascribable to significant levels of peroxidation-blocking and/or aldehyde-consuming collagenous polypeptides/peptides and ammoniacal agents therein. Significantly lower levels of toxic aldehydes were generated in the pre-fermented Product 4 during exposure to TSEs, or the above long-term storage episodes. These results confirmed the enhanced peroxidative resistivity of a fermented, antioxidant-fortified natural CLO product over those of non-fermented unrefined products. Product 4: Green Pasture Blue Ice™ Fermented Cod Liver Oil.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Nutrients
Creators: Percival, B.C., Wann, A., Zbasnik, R., Schlegel, V., Edgar, M., Zhang, J., Ampem, G., Wilson, P., Le Gresley, A., Naughton, D. and Grootveld, M.
Publisher: MDPI
Date: 12 March 2020
Volume: 12
Number: 3
ISSN: 2072-6643
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.3390/nu12030753DOI
1314379Other
Rights: © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Divisions: Schools > School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences
Record created by: Jonathan Gallacher
Date Added: 17 Jun 2020 09:19
Last Modified: 15 Jul 2020 14:28
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/40019

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