Modeling engagement with multimodal multisensor data: the continuous performance test as an objective tool to track flow

Brown, D. ORCID: 0000-0002-1677-7485, Sherkat, N. and Taheri, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-7594-4530, 2020. Modeling engagement with multimodal multisensor data: the continuous performance test as an objective tool to track flow. International Journal of Computer and Information Engineering, 14 (162), pp. 197-208. ISSN 2010-3921

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Abstract

Engagement is one of the most important factors in determining successful outcomes and deep learning in students. Existing approaches to detect student engagement involve periodic human observations that are subject to inter-rater reliability. Our solution uses real-time multimodal multisensor data labeled by objective performance outcomes to infer the engagement of students. The study involves four students with a combined diagnosis of cerebral palsy and a learning disability who took part in a 3-month trial over 59 sessions. Multimodal multisensor data were collected while they participated in a continuous performance test. Eye gaze, electroencephalogram, body pose, and interaction data were used to create a model of student engagement through objective labeling from the continuous performance test outcomes. In order to achieve this, a type of continuous performance test is introduced, the Seek-X type. Nine features were extracted including high-level handpicked compound features. Using leaveone-out cross-validation, a series of different machine learning approaches were evaluated. Overall, the random forest classification approach achieved the best classification results. Using random forest, 93.3% classification for engagement and 42.9% accuracy for disengagement were achieved. We compared these results to outcomes from different models: AdaBoost, decision tree, k-Nearest Neighbor, naïve Bayes, neural network, and support vector machine. We showed that using a multisensor approach achieved higher accuracy than using features from any reduced set of sensors. We found that using high-level handpicked features can improve the classification accuracy in every sensor mode. Our approach is robust to both sensor fallout and occlusions. The single most important sensor feature to the classification of engagement and distraction was shown to be eye gaze. It has been shown that we can accurately predict the level of engagement of students with learning disabilities in a real-time approach that is not subject to inter-rater reliability, human observation or reliant on a single mode of sensor input. This will help teachers design interventions for a heterogeneous group of students, where teachers cannot possibly attend to each of their individual needs. Our approach can be used to identify those with the greatest learning challenges so that all students are supported to reach their full potential.

Item Type: Journal article
Alternative Title: Modeling engagement with multimodal multisensor data
Description: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, Open Science Index series, 162.

ICACII 2020: 14th International Conference on Affective Computing and Intelligent, Paris, France, 14-15 May 2020.
Publication Title: International Journal of Computer and Information Engineering
Creators: Brown, D., Sherkat, N. and Taheri, M.
Publisher: World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
Date: 2020
Volume: 14
Number: 162
ISSN: 2010-3921
Identifiers:
NumberType
1317603Other
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Depositing User: Linda Sullivan
Date Added: 19 Jun 2020 07:57
Last Modified: 19 Jun 2020 07:59
Related URLs:
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/40051

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