Towards enhancing sustainability: a novel approach for reducing carbon emission during the transportation of Zamzam water by pilgrims during Hajj and Umrah

Al-Habaibeh, A. ORCID: 0000-0002-9867-6011, Hamadeh, S., Aljahdali, K. and Akib, S. ORCID: 0000-0002-6538-0716, 2020. Towards enhancing sustainability: a novel approach for reducing carbon emission during the transportation of Zamzam water by pilgrims during Hajj and Umrah. Research in Transportation Business and Management. ISSN 2210-5395 (Forthcoming)

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Abstract

Millions of people visit Makkah for Hajj and Umrah as part of Muslims religious activities. One of the gifts people take home with them to friends and family is the holy water of Zamzam. Currently, water is packaged in 5-Litre special containers to be transported for that purpose. Most pilgrims use air transportation and carry with them Zamzam water gift. This paper explores the carbon emission currently produced by airlines by this excess weight and the possibility of reducing carbon emission by replacing the air transportation of water by other means using land and sea alternatives. This paper has focused on main cities and airports of the world where pilgrims travel from and to. The results indicate that more than 81 thousand tonnes of CO2 could be saved annually with an estimated reduction of more than 96% tonnes of CO2.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Research in Transportation Business and Management
Creators: Al-Habaibeh, A., Hamadeh, S., Aljahdali, K. and Akib, S.
Publisher: Elsevier
Date: 10 July 2020
ISSN: 2210-5395
Identifiers:
NumberType
1345242Other
Divisions: Schools > School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment
Record created by: Jill Tomkinson
Date Added: 22 Jul 2020 10:27
Last Modified: 22 Jul 2020 10:27
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/40257

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