Predictors of postprandial glycaemia, insulinaemia and insulin resistance in adolescents

Williamson, R.A., Dring, K.J. ORCID: 0000-0002-9647-3579, Cooper, S.B. ORCID: 0000-0001-5219-5020, Morris, J.G. ORCID: 0000-0001-6508-7897, Sunderland, C. ORCID: 0000-0001-7484-1345 and Nevill, M.E. ORCID: 0000-0003-2498-9493, 2020. Predictors of postprandial glycaemia, insulinaemia and insulin resistance in adolescents. British Journal of Nutrition. ISSN 0007-1145

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Abstract

Postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of insulin resistance in adolescents is increasing, but it is unknown how adolescent participant characteristics such as BMI, waist circumference, fitness and maturity offset may explain responses to a standard meal. The aim of the present study was to examine how such participant characteristics affect the postprandial glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to an ecologically valid mixed meal. Data from the control trials of three separate randomised, crossover experiments were pooled, resulting in a total of 108 participants (52 boys, 56 girls; age: 12.5±0.6 y; BMI: 19.05±2.66 kg·m-2). A fasting blood sample was taken for the calculation of fasting insulin resistance, using the HOMA-IR model. Further capillary blood samples were taken before and 30-, 60- and 120-min after a standardised lunch, providing 1.5 g.kg-1 body mass of carbohydrate, for the quantification of blood glucose and plasma insulin total area under the curve (tAUC). Hierarchical multiple linear regression demonstrated significant predictors for plasma insulin tAUC were waist circumference, physical fitness and HOMA-IR (F(3, 98)=36.78, p<.001, Adj. R2=.515). The variance in blood glucose tAUC was not significantly explained by the predictors used (F(7, 94)=1.44, p=.198). Significant predictors for HOMA-IR were BMI and maturity offset (F(2, 102)=14.06, p<.001, Adj. R2=.021). In summary, the key findings of the study are that waist circumference, followed by physical fitness, best explained the insulinemic response to an ecologically valid standardised meal in adolescents. This has important behavioural consequences because these variables can be modified.

Item Type: Journal article
Alternative Title: Adolescent glycaemic & insulinaemic responses [running head]
Publication Title: British Journal of Nutrition
Creators: Williamson, R.A., Dring, K.J., Cooper, S.B., Morris, J.G., Sunderland, C. and Nevill, M.E.
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Date: 7 September 2020
ISSN: 0007-1145
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.1017/s0007114520003505DOI
1367051Other
Rights: © The Authors 2020.
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Linda Sullivan
Date Added: 05 Oct 2020 13:44
Last Modified: 05 Oct 2020 13:44
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/41151

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