The COVID-19 pandemic and serious psychological consequences in Bangladesh: a population-based nationwide study

Mamun, M.A., Sakib, N., Gozal, D., Bhuiyan, A.I., Hossain, S., Bodrud-Doza, M., Mamun, F.A., Hosen, I., Safiq, M.B., Abdullah, A.H., Sarker, M.A., Rayhan, I., Sikder, M.T., Muhit, M., Lin, C.-Y., Griffiths, M.D. ORCID: 0000-0001-8880-6524 and Pakpour, A.H., 2021. The COVID-19 pandemic and serious psychological consequences in Bangladesh: a population-based nationwide study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 279, pp. 462-472. ISSN 0165-0327

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Abstract

Background: As with countries worldwide, lockdown measures during the COVID-19 outbreak in Bangladesh were sudden and unexpected, and have the capacity to elicit serious psychological consequences. The present study examined the psychological consequences of COVID-19 in Bangladesh during the lockdown period.

Methods: A nationwide online cross-sectional survey study recruited 10,067 individuals covering all 64 districts in Bangladesh via social media (April 1-10, 2020). The survey comprised questions concerning socio-demographics, knowledge of COVID-19, behavior towards COVID-19, fear of COVID-19, insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation. Logistic regression and structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses were performed to identify the risk factors depression and suicidal ideation. Geographical information system (GIS)-based spatial analysis was used to identify district-wise susceptibility to depression and suicidal ideation.

Findings: The prevalence rate of depression and suicidal ideation related to COVID-19 was 33% and 5%. Common risk factors for suicidal ideation and depression included being young, being female, being a cigarette smoker, having comorbid diseases, having high scores on the Fear COVID-19 Scale, and having insomnia symptoms. GIS-based maps detected high depression and suicidal ideation in the capital of Bangladesh and the districts near the capital as well as coastal areas where COVID-19 prevalence was high, as compared with districts with no reported cases.

Limitations: Self-reported scales and cross-sectional design of our study.

Conclusion: COVID-19 is associated with major psychological impact across Bangladesh, underlining the need of strategically located psychological support measures and improved access to mental health services, especially among women and younger people.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Journal of Affective Disorders
Creators: Mamun, M.A., Sakib, N., Gozal, D., Bhuiyan, A.I., Hossain, S., Bodrud-Doza, M., Mamun, F.A., Hosen, I., Safiq, M.B., Abdullah, A.H., Sarker, M.A., Rayhan, I., Sikder, M.T., Muhit, M., Lin, C.-Y., Griffiths, M.D. and Pakpour, A.H.
Publisher: Elsevier
Date: 15 January 2021
Volume: 279
ISSN: 0165-0327
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.1016/j.jad.2020.10.036DOI
S0165032720328809Publisher Item Identifier
1380929Other
Divisions: Schools > School of Social Sciences
Record created by: Linda Sullivan
Date Added: 28 Oct 2020 14:33
Last Modified: 23 Nov 2020 15:23
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/41425

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