Cancer vaccines: adjuvant potency, importance of age, lifestyle, and treatments

Cuzzubbo, S., Mangsbo, S., Nagarajan, D., Habra, K., Pockley, A.G. ORCID: 0000-0001-9593-6431 and McArdle, S.E.B. ORCID: 0000-0001-6929-9782, 2021. Cancer vaccines: adjuvant potency, importance of age, lifestyle, and treatments. Frontiers in Immunology, 11: 615240. ISSN 1664-3224

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Abstract

Although the discovery and characterization of multiple tumor antigens have sparked the development of many antigen/derived cancer vaccines, many are poorly immunogenic and thus, lack clinical efficacy. Adjuvants are therefore incorporated into vaccine formulations to trigger strong and long-lasting immune responses. Adjuvants have generally been classified into two categories: those that ‘depot’ antigens (e.g. mineral salts such as aluminum hydroxide, emulsions, liposomes) and those that act as immunostimulants (Toll Like Receptor agonists, saponins, cytokines). In addition, several novel technologies using vector-based delivery of antigens have been used. Unfortunately, the immune system declines with age, a phenomenon known as immunosenescence, and this is characterized by functional changes in both innate and adaptive cellular immunity systems as well as in lymph node architecture. While many of the immune functions decline over time, others paradoxically increase. Indeed, aging is known to be associated with a low level of chronic inflammation—inflamm-aging. Given that the median age of cancer diagnosis is 66 years and that immunotherapeutic interventions such as cancer vaccines are currently given in combination with or after other forms of treatments which themselves have immune-modulating potential such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the choice of adjuvants requires careful consideration in order to achieve the maximum immune response in a compromised environment. In addition, more clinical trials need to be performed to carefully assess how less conventional form of immune adjuvants, such as exercise, diet and psychological care which have all be shown to influence immune responses can be incorporated to improve the efficacy of cancer vaccines. In this review, adjuvants will be discussed with respect to the above-mentioned important elements.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Frontiers in Immunology
Creators: Cuzzubbo, S., Mangsbo, S., Nagarajan, D., Habra, K., Pockley, A.G. and McArdle, S.E.B.
Publisher: Frontiers Media
Date: 17 February 2021
Volume: 11
ISSN: 1664-3224
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.3389/fimmu.2020.615240DOI
1409359Other
Rights: Copyright © 2021 Cuzzubbo, Mangsbo, Nagarajan, Habra, Pockley and McArdle This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited andthat the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Jeremy Silvester
Date Added: 19 Feb 2021 11:30
Last Modified: 19 Feb 2021 11:30
Related URLs:
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/42330

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