Injury incidence across the menstrual cycle in international footballers

Martin, D. ORCID: 0000-0001-8431-6659, Timmins, K., Cowie, C., Alty, J., Mehta, R., Tang, A. and Varley, I. ORCID: 0000-0002-3607-8921, 2021. Injury incidence across the menstrual cycle in international footballers. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 3: 616999. ISSN 2624-9367

[img]
Preview
Text
1448055_Varley.pdf - Published version

Download (219kB) | Preview

Abstract

Objectives: This study aimed to assess how menstrual cycle phase and extended menstrual cycle length influence the incidence of injuries in international footballers.

Methods: Over a 4-year period, injuries from England international footballers at training camps or matches were recorded, alongside self-reported information on menstrual cycle characteristics at the point of injury. Injuries in eumenorrheic players were categorized into early follicular, late follicular, or luteal phase. Frequencies were also compared between injuries recorded during the typical cycle and those that occurred after the cycle would be expected to have finished. Injury incidence rates (per 1,000 person days) and injury incidence rate ratios were calculated for each phase for all injuries and injuries stratified by type.

Results: One hundred fifty-six injuries from 113 players were eligible for analysis. Injury incidence rates per 1,000 person-days were 31.9 in the follicular, 46.8 in the late follicular, and 35.4 in the luteal phase, resulting in injury incidence rate ratios of 1.47 (Late follicular:Follicular), 1.11 (Luteal:Follicular), and 0.76 (Luteal:Late follicular). Injury incident rate ratios showed that muscle and tendon injury rates were 88% greater in the late follicular phase compared to the follicular phase, with muscle rupture/tear/strain/cramps and tendon injuries/ruptures occurring over twice as often during the late follicular phase compared to other phases 20% of injuries were reported as occurring when athletes were "overdue" menses.

Conclusion: Muscle and tendon injuries occurred almost twice as often in the late follicular phase compared to the early follicular or luteal phase. Injury risk may be elevated in typically eumenorrheic women in the days after their next menstruation was expected to start.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living
Creators: Martin, D., Timmins, K., Cowie, C., Alty, J., Mehta, R., Tang, A. and Varley, I.
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Date: 2021
Volume: 3
ISSN: 2624-9367
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.3389/fspor.2021.616999DOI
1448055Other
Rights: Copyright © 2021 Martin, Timmins, Cowie, Alty, Mehta, Tang and Varley. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Linda Sullivan
Date Added: 15 Jul 2021 13:43
Last Modified: 15 Jul 2021 13:43
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/43486

Actions (login required)

Edit View Edit View

Views

Views per month over past year

Downloads

Downloads per month over past year