Alkaloids from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera): recent advances in biosynthesis, pharmacokinetics, bioactivity, safety, and industrial applications

Wang, Z., Li, Y., Ma, D., Zeng, M., Wang, Z., Qin, F., Chen, J., Christian, M. ORCID: 0000-0002-1616-4179 and He, Z., 2021. Alkaloids from lotus (Nelumbo nucifera): recent advances in biosynthesis, pharmacokinetics, bioactivity, safety, and industrial applications. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. ISSN 1040-8398

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Abstract

Different parts of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.) including the seeds, rhizomes, leaves, and flowers, are used for medicinal purposes with health promoting and illness preventing benefits. The presence of active chemicals such as alkaloids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, and terpenoids (particularly alkaloids) may account for this plant’s pharmacological effects. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview and summarize up-to-date research on the biosynthesis, pharmacokinetics, and bioactivity of lotus alkaloids as well as their safety. Moreover, the potential uses of lotus alkaloids in the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic sectors are explored. Current evidence shows that alkaloids, mainly consisting of aporphines, 1-benzylisoquinolines, and bisbenzylisoquinolines, are present in different parts of lotus. The bioavailability of these alkaloids is relatively low in vivo but can be enhanced by technological modification using nanoliposomes, liposomes, microcapsules, and emulsions. Available data highlights their therapeutic and preventive effects on obesity, diabetes, neurodegeneration, cancer, cardiovascular disease, etc. Additionally, industrial applications of lotus alkaloids include their use as food, medical, and cosmetic ingredients in tea, other beverages, and healthcare products; as lipid-lowering, anticancer, and antipsychotic drugs; and in facial masks, toothpastes, and shower gels. However, their clinical efficacy and safety remains unclear; hence, larger and longer human trials are needed to achieve their safe and effective use with minimal side effects.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Creators: Wang, Z., Li, Y., Ma, D., Zeng, M., Wang, Z., Qin, F., Chen, J., Christian, M. and He, Z.
Publisher: Informa UK Limited
Date: 30 November 2021
ISSN: 1040-8398
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.1080/10408398.2021.2009436DOI
1500516Other
Rights: This is an Accepted Manuscript of an article published by Taylor & Francis in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition on 30th November 2021, available online: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/10408398.2021.2009436
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Laura Ward
Date Added: 02 Dec 2021 12:34
Last Modified: 02 Dec 2021 12:34
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/45037

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