On comparison of recycled LDPE and LDPE–bakelite composite based 3D printed patch antenna

Singh, R., Kumar, S., Singh, A.P. and Wei, Y. ORCID: 0000-0001-6195-8595, 2021. On comparison of recycled LDPE and LDPE–bakelite composite based 3D printed patch antenna. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications. ISSN 1464-4207

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Abstract

In the past two decades number of studies have been reported on the use of thermoplastics as a substrate for 3D printed patch antennas. However, no work has been reported on the thermoplastic-thermosetting composite-based substrate for 3D printed patch antennas and their mechanical, morphological, rheological, and radiofrequency (RF) characterization for sensing applications. In this study low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and LDPE-5% bakelite (BAK) composite-based patch antenna (resonating frequency 2.45 GHz) were printed (for secondary recycling) on fused deposition modeling (FDM) setup. The RF characteristics were measured using a vector network analyzer (VNA). Ring resonator test was used for measuring the dielectric properties of substrates (which suggests that the dielectric constant (ε r) and loss tangent (tan δ) for LDPE was 2.282 and 0.0045, whereas for LDPE-5%BAK the calculated ε r and tan δ was 2.0663, 0.0051 respectively). This study highlights that for the LDPE-5%BAK composite there was a marginal increase in the size of the patch antenna; but this resulted in improved transmittance, gain, and return loss for typical sensor applications. As regards to printability of substrate, 5% BAK resulted in a melt flow index (MFI) of 9.96 g/10 min in contrast to 12.208 g/10 min for a neat LDPE sample. The selected LDPE-5%BAK composite resulted in peak strength (PS) and break strength (BS) of 16.08 MPa and 14.47 MPa (at 180 °C screw temperature, 110 rpm, and 11 kg load) while processing with a twin-screw extruder (TSE), which was observed better than the neat LDPE (PS 11.98 MPa, BS 10.79 MPa). The results were supported with porosity (%), surface roughness (Ra) analysis based upon scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and bond strength using attenuated total reflection (ATR) based Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) analysis.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications
Creators: Singh, R., Kumar, S., Singh, A.P. and Wei, Y.
Publisher: SAGE Publications
Date: 6 December 2021
ISSN: 1464-4207
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.1177/14644207211060465DOI
1502152Other
Rights: Accepted for publication. Reuse is restricted to non-commercial and no derivative uses. Singh, R., Kumar, S., Singh, A. P., & Wei, Y. (2021). On comparison of recycled LDPE and LDPE–bakelite composite based 3D printed patch antenna. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications. Copyright © 2021 by Institution of Mechanical Engineers. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/14644207211060465
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Linda Sullivan
Date Added: 11 Jan 2022 10:23
Last Modified: 11 Jan 2022 10:23
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/45237

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