Waste sugarcane bagasse-derived nanocatalyst for microwave-assisted transesterification: thermal, kinetic and optimization study

Nazir, M.H., Ayoub, M., Zahid, I., Shamsuddin, R.B., Zulqarnain, , Ameen, M., Sher, F. ORCID: 0000-0003-2890-5912 and Farrukh, S., 2022. Waste sugarcane bagasse-derived nanocatalyst for microwave-assisted transesterification: thermal, kinetic and optimization study. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 16 (1), pp. 122-141. ISSN 1932-104X

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Abstract

Production of biodiesel has been increased globally during the last decade to overcome the problems of increasing prices of petro-diesel and depletion of fossil fuels. The present study aims to utilize agro-waste sugarcane bagasse (SCB) to synthesize heterogeneous acid catalyst for biodiesel production using waste cooking oil. Waste sugarcane bagasse was converted into biochar through partial carbonization and activated via sulfonation by using 1M, 3M, 5M and concentrated sulfuric acid at a sulfonation temperature of 180 ℃ for 5 h. The prepared catalysts were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and CHNS analyzer. The prepared catalyst exhibited an excellent surface area of 20.78 m2/gm and a total acid density of 3.94 mmol/gm. The yield of biodiesel was optimized over the influence of four process parameters in the range of reaction temperature (40-70 ℃), methanol to oil molar ratio (5:1-20:1), catalyst loading (1-7 wt.%) for 5-25 min using microwave reactor. The maximum conversion of 95.45% and yield of 92.12% was obtained under optimum conditions; catalyst loading 5 wt.%, methanol to oil molar ratio (15:1), temperature (60 ℃) after 15 min. The results of experiments were validated by using response surface methodology which validated the predicted model. Kinetic study of experiments depicted that the use of sulfonated catalyst lowered the activation energy (10.5 kJ/mol) and reactants attained equilibrium point after a short interval of time under microwave heating. Moreover, reusability of catalyst up to seven cycles with 77.34% yield of biodiesel using low-grade feedstock showed that the catalyst is stable and can be used for sustainable biodiesel production. The utilization of wastes for catalyst synthesis as well as for biodiesel production can help us to minimize the overall production cost of biodiesel.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining
Creators: Nazir, M.H., Ayoub, M., Zahid, I., Shamsuddin, R.B., Zulqarnain, , Ameen, M., Sher, F. and Farrukh, S.
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Ltd
Date: 9 January 2022
Volume: 16
Number: 1
ISSN: 1932-104X
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.1002/bbb.2264DOI
1490149Other
Rights: This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Nazir, M.H., Ayoub, M., Zahid, I., Shamsuddin, R.B., Zulqarnain, , Ameen, M., Sher, F. and Farrukh, S. (2022). Waste sugarcane bagasse-derived nanocatalyst for microwave-assisted transesterification: thermal, kinetic and optimization study. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 16(1), 122-141 , which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1002/bbb.2264 This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions. This article may not be enhanced, enriched or otherwise transformed into a derivative work, without express permission from Wiley or by statutory rights under applicable legislation. Copyright notices must not be removed, obscured or modified. The article must be linked to Wiley’s version of record on Wiley Online Library and any embedding, framing or otherwise making available the article or pages thereof by third parties from platforms, services and websites other than Wiley Online Library must be prohibited.
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Laura Ward
Date Added: 09 Mar 2022 10:25
Last Modified: 09 Mar 2022 10:25
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/45824

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