Impacts of COVID-19 and lockdown on mental health: depression, anxiety, stress and fear among adult population in Turkey

Bener, A., Griffiths, M.D. ORCID: 0000-0001-8880-6524, Cahit Barisik, C., Inan, F.C. and Morg, E., 2022. Impacts of COVID-19 and lockdown on mental health: depression, anxiety, stress and fear among adult population in Turkey. Archives of Clinical and Biomedical Research, 6 (6): 1010-1020. ISSN 2572-5017

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Background: Most of the documented literature to date has reported that the COVID-19 pandemic is associated with greater distress, anxiety, anger, stress, and agitation among the general public compared to before the onset of the pandemic.

Method and study design: A review was done to now the evidence for the antiviral and immune-modulatory properties of micronutrients. A search was done in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar for the nutrients with proven effect against viral infection. Experimental studies, clinical studies, reviews, and meta-analyses were studied descriptively.

Aim: The aim of study was to examine the impact of COVID-19 and the national lockdown on mental health perception of depression, anxiety, stress and fear among the general population in Turkey.
Subjects and methods: The present study comprised a cross-sectional survey of 1,792 male and female participants aged 20-65 years in Turkey (June to October 2020) who completed the 21-item Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale (DASS-21) and Fear of COVID-19 Scale (FCV-19S). Bivariate and multivariate stepwise regression analyses were used for the demographic and mental health-related variables.

Results: The majority of the respondents recognized the main COVID-19 symptoms (82.9%), knew that there is no drug and vaccine (85.4%), were afraid to travel and visit a shopping mall (86.9%), believed wearing medical masks helped prevent against COVID-19 (81.1%), and considered lockdown isolation reduced the risk of COVID-19 (86.5%). The mean score (and standard deviation) for depression was 13.57 (SD±8.48); for anxiety was 9.32 (SD±7.62); for stress was 16.45 (SD±6.89); and for fear of COVID-19 was 23.47 (SD±4.24). The study showed that there was a significant relationship between fear of COVID-19 and higher levels of depression (r=0.345), anxiety (r=0.253), and stress (r=0.369), (all p-values <0.001). The results of multivariate regression analysis showed that the age (p<0.001), depression (p<0.001), anxiety (p<0.001), sleeping problems due to worrying about being infected with COVID-19 (p<0.001), stress (p<0.001), and being afraid to travel because of COVID-19 (p=0.041) were all significantly associated with greater fear of COVID-19.

Conclusions: The findings of this study confirmed that fear of COVID-19 was significantly associated with depression, anxiety, and stress.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Archives of Clinical and Biomedical Research
Creators: Bener, A., Griffiths, M.D., Cahit Barisik, C., Inan, F.C. and Morg, E.
Publisher: Fortune Journals
Date: 24 December 2022
Volume: 6
Number: 6
ISSN: 2572-5017
Rights: This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license 4.0
Divisions: Schools > School of Social Sciences
Record created by: Jeremy Silvester
Date Added: 10 Feb 2023 11:51
Last Modified: 10 Feb 2023 11:51

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