On-device mobile speech recognition

Mustafa, M.K., 2016. On-device mobile speech recognition. PhD, Nottingham Trent University.

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Despite many years of research, Speech Recognition remains an active area of research in Artificial Intelligence. Currently, the most common commercial application of this technology on mobile devices uses a wireless client – server approach to meet the computational and memory demands of the speech recognition process. Unfortunately, such an approach is unlikely to remain viable when fully applied over the approximately 7.22 Billion mobile phones currently in circulation. In this thesis we present an On – Device Speech recognition system. Such a system has the potential to completely eliminate the wireless client-server bottleneck. For the Voice Activity Detection part of this work, this thesis presents two novel algorithms used to detect speech activity within an audio signal. The first algorithm is based on the Log Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients Residual signal. These LLPCCRS feature vectors were then classified into voice signal and non-voice signal segments using a modified K-means clustering algorithm. This VAD algorithm is shown to provide a better performance as compared to a conventional energy frame analysis based approach. The second algorithm developed is based on the Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients. This algorithm uses the frames within the speech signal with the minimum and maximum standard deviation, as candidates for a linear cross correlation against the rest of the frames within the audio signal. The cross correlated frames are then classified using the same modified K-means clustering algorithm. The resulting output provides a cluster for Speech frames and another cluster for Non–speech frames. This novel application of the linear cross correlation technique to linear predictive cepstral coefficients feature vectors provides a fast computation method for use on the mobile platform; as shown by the results presented in this thesis. The Speech recognition part of this thesis presents two novel Neural Network approaches to mobile Speech recognition. Firstly, a recurrent neural networks architecture is developed to accommodate the output of the VAD stage. Specifically, an Echo State Network (ESN) is used for phoneme level recognition. The drawbacks and advantages of this method are explained further within the thesis. Secondly, a dynamic Multi-Layer Perceptron approach is developed. This builds on the drawbacks of the ESN and provides a dynamic way of handling speech signal length variabilities within its architecture. This novel Dynamic Multi-Layer Perceptron uses both the Linear Predictive Cepstral Coefficients (LPC) and the Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) as input features. A speaker dependent approach is presented using the Centre for spoken Language and Understanding (CSLU) database. The results show a very distinct behaviour from conventional speech recognition approaches because the LPC shows performance figures very close to the MFCC. A speaker independent system, using the standard TIMIT dataset, is then implemented on the dynamic MLP for further confirmation of this. In this mode of operation the MFCC outperforms the LPC. Finally, all the results, with emphasis on the computation time of both these novel neural network approaches are compared directly to a conventional hidden Markov model on the CSLU and TIMIT standard datasets.

Item Type: Thesis
Creators: Mustafa, M.K.
Date: May 2016
Rights: This work is the intellectual property of the author. You may copy up to 5% of this work for private study, or personal, non-commercial research. Any re-use of the information contained within this document should be fully referenced, quoting the author, title, university, degree level and pagination. Queries or requests for any other use, or if a more substantial copy is required, should be directed in the first instance to owner(s) of the Intellectual Property Rights.
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Linda Sullivan
Date Added: 29 Jun 2016 13:25
Last Modified: 29 Jun 2016 13:25
URI: https://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/28044

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