The internal machinations of cocaine: the evolution, risks, and sentencing of body packers

O'Hagan, A. ORCID: 0000-0001-5361-8320 and Harvey, I.C., 2016. The internal machinations of cocaine: the evolution, risks, and sentencing of body packers. Forensic Research & Criminology International Journal, 2 (5), 00071. ISSN 2469-2794

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Body Packers or Drug Mules, as they are often referred to, represent a method of drug trafficking that has gained popularity since the 1970’s. It appears to be most popular as a method of transporting powder drugs such as Cocaine and Heroin; as it is a surreptitious method of couriering, there is little mystery as to why the method was developed. This review aims to decipher why there is the necessity for this dangerous and flawed method of trafficking, focusing on cocaine in particular. The paper will review the evolution of cocaine body packing, how legislation and the cartels worked together to force the development of drug mules, and the effect this method of trafficking has on the individuals who become the packers, or ‘mules’. A thorough understanding of the development and risks associated with this most dangerous practice, may contribute to the efforts to eradicate this method of cocaine trafficking.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Forensic Research & Criminology International Journal
Creators: O'Hagan, A. and Harvey, I.C.
Publisher: MedCrave
Date: 14 September 2016
Volume: 2
Number: 5
ISSN: 2469-2794
Rights: ©2016 O'Hagan et al
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Jonathan Gallacher
Date Added: 28 Sep 2016 13:33
Last Modified: 10 Oct 2017 09:50
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