The physiological roles of carnosine and β-alanine in exercising human skeletal muscle

Matthews, J.J., Artioli, G.G. ORCID: 0000-0001-8463-2213, Turner, M.D. ORCID: 0000-0001-7175-1053 and Sale, C. ORCID: 0000-0002-5816-4169, 2019. The physiological roles of carnosine and β-alanine in exercising human skeletal muscle. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 51 (10), pp. 2098-2108. ISSN 0195-9131

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Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) plays an important role in exercise performance and skeletal muscle homeostasis. Dietary supplementation with the rate-limiting precursor β-alanine leads to an increase in skeletal muscle carnosine content, which further potentiates its effects. There is significant interest in carnosine and β-alanine across athletic and clinical populations. Traditionally, attention has been given to performance outcomes with less focus on the underlying mechanism(s). Putative physiological roles in human skeletal muscle include acting as an intracellular pH buffer, modulating energy metabolism, regulating Ca2+ handling and myofilament sensitivity, and scavenging of reactive species. Emerging evidence shows that carnosine could also act as a cytoplasmic Ca2+–H+ exchanger and form stable conjugates with exercise-induced reactive aldehydes. The enigmatic nature of carnosine means there is still much to learn regarding its actions and applications in exercise, health and disease. In this review, we examine the research relating to each physiological role attributed to carnosine, and its precursor β-alanine, in exercising human skeletal muscle.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise
Creators: Matthews, J.J., Artioli, G.G., Turner, M.D. and Sale, C.
Publisher: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
Date: October 2019
Volume: 51
Number: 10
ISSN: 0195-9131
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Jonathan Gallacher
Date Added: 20 May 2019 10:54
Last Modified: 05 Jul 2021 15:31

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