Immune escape in glioblastoma multiforme and the adaptation of immunotherapies for treatment

Pearson, J.R.D. ORCID: 0000-0003-1687-5955, Cuzzubbo, S., McArthur, S., Durrant, L.G., Adhikaree, J., Tinsley, C.J. ORCID: 0000-0002-9369-443X, Pockley, A.G. ORCID: 0000-0001-9593-6431 and McArdle, S.E.B. ORCID: 0000-0001-6929-9782, 2020. Immune escape in glioblastoma multiforme and the adaptation of immunotherapies for treatment. Frontiers in Immunology, 11: 582106.

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Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most frequently occurring primary brain tumor and has a very poor prognosis, with only around 5% of patients surviving for a period of 5 years or more after diagnosis. Despite aggressive multimodal therapy, consisting mostly of a combination of surgery, radiotherapy, and temozolomide chemotherapy, tumors nearly always recur close to the site of resection. For the past 15 years, very little progress has been made with regards to improving patient survival. Although immunotherapy represents an attractive therapy modality due to the promising pre-clinical results observed, many of these potential immunotherapeutic approaches fail during clinical trials, and to date no immunotherapeutic treatments for GBM have been approved. As for many other difficult to treat cancers, GBM combines a lack of immunogenicity with few mutations and a highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Unfortunately, both tumor and immune cells have been shown to contribute towards this immunosuppressive phenotype. In addition, current therapeutics also exacerbate this immunosuppression which might explain the failure of immunotherapy-based clinical trials in the GBM setting. Understanding how these mechanisms interact with one another, as well as how one can increase the anti-tumor immune response by addressing local immunosuppression will lead to better clinical results for immune-based therapeutics. Improving therapeutic delivery across the blood brain barrier also presents a challenge for immunotherapy and future therapies will need to consider this. This review highlights the immunosuppressive mechanisms employed by GBM cancers and examines potential immunotherapeutic treatments that can overcome these significant immunosuppressive hurdles.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Frontiers in Immunology
Creators: Pearson, J.R.D., Cuzzubbo, S., McArthur, S., Durrant, L.G., Adhikaree, J., Tinsley, C.J., Pockley, A.G. and McArdle, S.E.B.
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Date: 15 October 2020
Volume: 11
Rights: © 2020 Pearson, Cuzzubbo, McArthur, Durrant, Adhikaree, Tinsley, Pockley and McArdle. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Linda Sullivan
Date Added: 16 Oct 2020 15:15
Last Modified: 31 May 2021 15:15

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