In search of the optimum structural model for Internet Gaming Disorder

Stavropoulos, V., Gomez, R. and Griffiths, M.D. ORCID: 0000-0001-8880-6524, 2021. In search of the optimum structural model for Internet Gaming Disorder. BMC Psychiatry, 21: 176. ISSN 1471-244X

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Internet gaming Disorder (IGD) constitutes a recently proposed clinical disorder (American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2013). The present study examined if IGD is best conceptualized as categorical (present/absent), or dimensional (severity ranging from low to high), or both (i.e., hybrid of categorical/dimensional).

Ratings of the nine DSM-5 IGD symptoms, as presented in the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale 9-Short Form (Pontes and Griffiths, Comput Hum Behav 45:137-143, 2015), from 738 gamers, aged 17 to 72 years, were collected. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), latent class analysis (LCA), and factor mixture modelling analysis (FMMA) procedures were applied to determine the optimum IGD model.

Although the findings showed most support for a FFMA model with two classes and one factor, there was also good statistical and substantive support for the one-factor CFA model, and the LCA model with three classes.

It was concluded that while the optimum structure of IGD is most likely to be a hybrid model (i.e., concurrently categorical and dimensional), a uni-dimensional model and/or a three-class categorical model are also plausible.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: BMC Psychiatry
Creators: Stavropoulos, V., Gomez, R. and Griffiths, M.D.
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Date: 1 April 2021
Volume: 21
ISSN: 1471-244X
Rights: © The Author(s). 2021 This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Divisions: Schools > School of Social Sciences
Record created by: Jeremy Silvester
Date Added: 08 Apr 2021 13:51
Last Modified: 31 May 2021 15:04

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