Effects of low energy availability on bone health in endurance athletes and high-impact exercise as a potential countermeasure: a narrative review

Hutson, M.J., O’Donnell, E., Brooke-Wavell, K., Sale, C. ORCID: 0000-0002-5816-4169 and Blagrove, R.C., 2021. Effects of low energy availability on bone health in endurance athletes and high-impact exercise as a potential countermeasure: a narrative review. Sports Medicine, 51 (3), pp. 391-403. ISSN 0112-1642

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Abstract

Endurance athletes expend large amounts of energy in prolonged high-intensity exercise and, due to the weight-sensitive nature of most endurance sports, often practice periods of dietary restriction. The Female Athlete Triad and Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport models consider endurance athletes at high-risk for suffering from low energy availability and associated health complications, including an increased chance of bone stress injury. Several studies have examined the effects of low energy availability on various parameters of bone structure and markers of bone (re)modelling; however, there are differences in findings and research methods and critical summaries are lacking. It is difficult for athletes to reduce energy expenditure or increase energy intake (to restore energy availability) in an environment where performance is a priority. Development of an alternative tool to help protect bone health would be beneficial. High-impact exercise can be highly osteogenic and energy efficient; however, at present, it is rarely utilized to promote bone health in endurance athletes. Therefore, with a view to reducing the prevalence of bone stress injury, the objectives of this review are to evaluate the effects of low energy availability on bone health in endurance athletes and explore whether a high-impact exercise intervention may help to prevent those effects from occurring.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Sports Medicine
Creators: Hutson, M.J., O’Donnell, E., Brooke-Wavell, K., Sale, C. and Blagrove, R.C.
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Date: March 2021
Volume: 51
Number: 3
ISSN: 0112-1642
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.1007/s40279-020-01396-4DOI
1430879Other
Rights: © The Author(s) 2020. Open Access. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Linda Sullivan
Date Added: 14 Apr 2021 11:26
Last Modified: 31 May 2021 15:04
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/42702

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