Endocrine responses to sport-related brain injury in female athletes: a narrative review and a call for action

Duffy, D., Elliott-Sale, K.J. ORCID: 0000-0003-1122-5099, Gardner, H., Goldenstein, S. and Wideman, L., 2021. Endocrine responses to sport-related brain injury in female athletes: a narrative review and a call for action. Endocrines, 2 (2), pp. 99-108. ISSN 2673-396X

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Abstract

Sport-related brain injury (SRBI) occurs when a blow to the head causes the brain to move back and forth in the skull, and can lead to neuroendocrine dysfunction. Research has shown that males and females experience and recover from SRBI differently, yet most of what is known regarding diagnosis, treatment, and recovery of SRBI is based on male normative data even though females meet or exceed incidence numbers of SRBIs compared to those of males. Females also have been known to have worse outcomes and a greater number of symptoms following SRBI than males. Research is limited as to why females have worse outcomes, but sex hormones have been suggested as a potential reason. SRBI may cause a dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis, which is responsible for regulating the sex hormones estrogen and progesterone. Initial research has shown that SRBI may suppress estrogen and progesterone, and the concentration of these sex hormones could be indicative of injury severity and recovery trajectory. This review discusses the sex-specific differences in SRBI and also the future direction of research that is needed in order to identify the repercussions of SRBIs for female athletes, which will eventually lead to better clinical treatment, sideline care, and recovery profiles.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Endocrines
Creators: Duffy, D., Elliott-Sale, K.J., Gardner, H., Goldenstein, S. and Wideman, L.
Publisher: MDPI AG
Date: 23 April 2021
Volume: 2
Number: 2
ISSN: 2673-396X
Identifiers:
NumberType
10.3390/endocrines2020010DOI
1434053Other
Rights: Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Linda Sullivan
Date Added: 29 Apr 2021 13:52
Last Modified: 31 May 2021 15:03
URI: http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/42780

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