Fear of COVID-19 among undergraduate and postgraduate students in Pakistan

Rafiq, N., Rafique, S., Griffiths, M.D. ORCID: 0000-0001-8880-6524 and Pakpour, A.H., 2023. Fear of COVID-19 among undergraduate and postgraduate students in Pakistan. Trends in Psychology, 31 (1), pp. 194-209. ISSN 2358-1883

1486912_Griffiths.pdf - Post-print

Download (1MB) | Preview


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has changed the lifestyles of individuals all over the world, induced a fear of virus transmission and confusion, and brought about many other potentially devastating psychological impacts. To minimize the spread of COVID-19, governments all over the world have implemented various practices including lockdowns, home quarantines, spatial distancing, and online teaching within schools, colleges, and/or universities. The present cross-sectional study was carried out to investigate the associations between socio-demographic factors and fear of COVID-19 among undergraduate and postgraduate students in public universities Lahore, Pakistan. Data were collected utilizing an online Google Forms survey based on a convenience sample of 397 undergraduate and postgraduate students of public universities (78% female; mean age = 24 years), enrolled in the subject of education (54%) and psychology (46%) when the virus was spreading rapidly throughout Pakistan. All the participants completed the Fear of COVID-19 Scale and questions concerning socio-demographic variables. Results indicated that the fear of COVID-19 was higher among the education students and female students. Fear of COVID 19 (i.e., scores on the FCV-19S) was positively associated with the participants’ personal or family history of illness and number of deaths in family. The level of fear of COVID-19 was different among the students who had physical illness, psychological illness, and no any history of illness personally or in their family.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Trends in Psychology
Creators: Rafiq, N., Rafique, S., Griffiths, M.D. and Pakpour, A.H.
Publisher: Springer
Date: March 2023
Volume: 31
Number: 1
ISSN: 2358-1883
Rights: Post-prints are subject to Springer Nature re-use terms
Divisions: Schools > School of Social Sciences
Record created by: Laura Ward
Date Added: 09 Nov 2021 09:56
Last Modified: 13 Mar 2023 14:38
URI: https://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/44654

Actions (login required)

Edit View Edit View


Views per month over past year


Downloads per month over past year