Psychosocial risk factors for depression among married Muslim mothers in Malaysia

Abdul Kadir, N.B. and Griffiths, M.D. ORCID: 0000-0001-8880-6524, 2022. Psychosocial risk factors for depression among married Muslim mothers in Malaysia. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 20 (3), pp. 1405-1422. ISSN 1557-1874

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Although many previous studies have examined factors associated with depression, there has been a lack of studies examining the role of external shame and lack of emotion regulation. Therefore, the present study examined these potential risk factors alongside other risk factors in a group that may be more prone to depression (i.e., married Muslim mothers). Married Muslim mothers (n = 971) residing in the urban area of Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) were surveyed. Using various psychometric instruments, the survey assessed psychiatric problems (including depression), insecure attachment styles, external shame, severe life events, emotional regulation, and vulnerable factors for depression. Results indicated that married Muslim mothers were more vulnerable to depression if they had high external shame, less cognitive reappraisal, had at least one severe life event, had low income, and were unemployed. External shame was the most significant risk factor for depression. In future studies and psychotherapy practice, external shame, cognitive reappraisal, severe life events, low income, and unemployment should be taken into account with regard to depression among this cohort.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
Creators: Abdul Kadir, N.B. and Griffiths, M.D.
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Date: June 2022
Volume: 20
Number: 3
ISSN: 1557-1874
Rights: © 2022 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Part of Springer Nature. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.
Divisions: Schools > School of Social Sciences
Record created by: Linda Sullivan
Date Added: 20 Jun 2022 10:12
Last Modified: 20 Jun 2022 10:12

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