Effect of adiposity and physical fitness on cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents: a 2-year longitudinal study

Dring, K.J. ORCID: 0000-0002-9647-3579, Cooper, S.B. ORCID: 0000-0001-5219-5020, Williams, R.A. ORCID: 0000-0002-1346-7756, Morris, J.G. ORCID: 0000-0001-6508-7897, Sunderland, C. ORCID: 0000-0001-7484-1345, Foulds, G.A. ORCID: 0000-0002-2053-7580, Pockley, A.G. and Nevill, M.E., 2022. Effect of adiposity and physical fitness on cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents: a 2-year longitudinal study. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 4: 1060530. ISSN 2624-9367

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Although risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases begin to present in young people, the association between physical fitness and adiposity with traditional and novel risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases across adolescence remains relatively unknown. Following ethical approval, fifty-two adolescents (age 11.6 ± 0.6 years; 32 girls) were recruited for a 2-years longitudinal study. Adiposity was assessed based on sum of skinfolds, waist circumference and body mass index, and physical fitness as distance run on the multi-stage fitness test (MSFT). Risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases (pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, plasma insulin, Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance - HOMA-IR, blood pressure) were measured following an overnight fast. Relationships between independent and response variables were analysed using multi-level modelling (final combined models were created using the stepwise backward elimination method). Plasma insulin concentration and HOMA-IR were positively associated with adiposity and inversely associated with distance run on the MSFT (all p < 0.05). The final combined models for plasma insulin concentration and HOMA-IR contained main effects for age, skinfolds and distance run on the MSFT. Levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were inversely related to the sum of skinfolds (p = 0.046), whereas there was a trend for levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α to be positively related to the sum of skinfolds (p = 0.056). Adiposity and physical fitness are important, independent, determinants of metabolic health in adolescents. Furthermore, adiposity influences levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in adolescence, with greater adiposity associated with a poorer inflammatory profile. The present study demonstrates an independent effect of physical fitness on metabolic health longitudinally across adolescence. It is therefore recommended that future work develops therapeutic interventions that reduce adiposity and enhance physical fitness in adolescents, to promote lifelong health.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living
Creators: Dring, K.J., Cooper, S.B., Williams, R.A., Morris, J.G., Sunderland, C., Foulds, G.A., Pockley, A.G. and Nevill, M.E.
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
Date: 15 December 2022
Volume: 4
ISSN: 2624-9367
Rights: © 2022 Dring, Cooper, Williams, Morris, Sunderland, Foulds, Pockley and Nevill. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Jonathan Gallacher
Date Added: 16 Dec 2022 10:48
Last Modified: 16 Dec 2022 16:14
URI: https://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/47677

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