Effects of morning vs. evening exercise on appetite, energy intake, performance and metabolism, in lean males and females

Mode, W.J.A., Slater, T., Pinkney, M.G., Hough, J. ORCID: 0000-0001-6970-5779, James, R.M. ORCID: 0000-0002-7119-3159, Varley, I. ORCID: 0000-0002-3607-8921, James, L.J. and Clayton, D.J. ORCID: 0000-0001-5481-0891, 2023. Effects of morning vs. evening exercise on appetite, energy intake, performance and metabolism, in lean males and females. Appetite, 182: 106422. ISSN 0195-6663

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Exercise is an important component of a weight management strategy. However, little is known about whether circadian variations in physiological and behavioural processes can influence the appetite and energy balance responses to exercise performed at different times of the day. This study compared the effects of morning and evening exercise on appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and voluntary performance. In randomised, counterbalanced order, 16 healthy males and females (n = 8 each) completed two trials, performing morning exercise at 10:30 (AMEx) or evening exercise at 18:30 (PMEx). Exercise consisted of 30 min steady-state cycling (60% V̇ O2peak), and a 15-min performance test. A standardised meal (543 ± 86 kcal) was consumed 2-h before exercise and ad-libitum energy intake was assessed 15 min after exercise, with subjective appetite measured throughout. Absolute ad-libitum energy intake was 152 ± 126 kcal greater during PMEx (P < 0.001), but there was no differences in subjective appetite between trials immediately pre-exercise, or immediately before the post-exercise meal (P ≥ 0.060). Resting energy expenditure (P < 0.01) and carbohydrate oxidation (P < 0.05) were greater during AMEx, but there were no differences in substrate oxidation or energy expenditure during exercise (P ≥ 0.155). Exercise performance was not different between trials (P = 0.628). In conclusion, acute morning and evening exercise prompt similar appetite responses, but post-exercise ad-libitum energy intake is greater following evening exercise. These findings demonstrate discordant responses between subjective appetite and ad-libitum energy intake but suggest that exercise might offset circadian variations in appetite. Longer-term studies are required to determine how exercise timing affects adherence and weight management outcomes to exercise interventions.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Appetite
Creators: Mode, W.J.A., Slater, T., Pinkney, M.G., Hough, J., James, R.M., Varley, I., James, L.J. and Clayton, D.J.
Publisher: Elsevier
Date: March 2023
Volume: 182
ISSN: 0195-6663
S019566632200513XPublisher Item Identifier
Rights: This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Jonathan Gallacher
Date Added: 09 Jan 2023 11:55
Last Modified: 17 Dec 2023 03:00
URI: https://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/47776

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