Verification of GPDS planning framework for social marketing: a Delphi method

Akbar, M.B. ORCID: 0000-0003-3092-6878 and Barnes, E., 2023. Verification of GPDS planning framework for social marketing: a Delphi method. International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing. ISSN 1865-1984

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This paper presents the GPDS (Getting Started, Planning, Design, and Sustainability) Planning Framework for Social Marketing. A qualitative research design was employed. Data were collected from social marketing experts using the Delphi method and analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. The proposed framework includes key strengths of existing Social Marketing Planning (SMP) approaches. It also embeds emerging social marketing principles in the planning process, such as 'Continuous Consumer Research and Feedback Loop' (embracing key aspects of monitoring and evaluation) and 'Expert Consultation' to overcome the lack of clarity on the interdisciplinary language used in the field. Importantly, the critical aspect of 'Sustainability' in the changed behavior is incorporated, aligning with the global consensus definition of social marketing and the United Nations' (UN) Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) focus on sustainable outcomes. Both theory and practice have been applied to the development and verification process of the proposed framework. The framework has consensus from 23 social marketing experts worldwide , drawing on current best practices and experts' opinions/experience in the field. The GPDS Planning Framework for Social Marketing offers a comprehensive list of sources in the accompanying toolkit, including various activities for insight, design, implementation, and evaluation. This enables practitioners to prepare, plan and deliver social marketing programs to sustain behavioral outcomes. This research informs those working in social marketing, social policy, behavioral insight/design, public health, health communication, and service-user experience. These disciplines deploy social marketing practices in the design and delivery of interventions.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: International Review on Public and Nonprofit Marketing
Creators: Akbar, M.B. and Barnes, E.
Publisher: Springer Verlag
Date: 11 January 2023
ISSN: 1865-1984
Rights: © The Author(s) 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Divisions: Schools > Nottingham Business School
Record created by: Laura Ward
Date Added: 16 Jan 2023 15:06
Last Modified: 16 Jan 2023 15:06

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