Polymer banknotes: a review of materials, design, and printing

Rafiei, A., Karimi, A. and Bodaghi, M. ORCID: 0000-0002-0707-944X, 2023. Polymer banknotes: a review of materials, design, and printing. Sustainability, 15 (4): 3736. ISSN 2071-1050

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Nowadays, more than 45 countries in the world use polymer banknotes in their monetary and banking systems. It is expected that by 2030, another 20 countries will abandon the use of paper banknotes and switch to polymer banknotes. Recent research shows that several countries in the Middle East and the European Union will switch to printing and using polymer banknotes soon due to the advantages of polymer banknotes. Polymer banknotes are made of polymeric materials. They possess very special optical security features and promote sustainability in the world, which motivated us to review recent materials, design, optical technologies, and printing methods in this respect. Since the topic of polymer banknotes is new and there are not many articles and research about them, this review specifically focuses on the structure of the constituent materials and security features and their reuse with an emphasis on sustainability and environmentally friendly banknotes. Specifically, analyses of 3D polymer films and the security properties of polymer banknotes are carried out. Finally, comparison studies with paper banknotes are performed, and pertinent conclusions are outlined.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Sustainability
Creators: Rafiei, A., Karimi, A. and Bodaghi, M.
Publisher: MDPI
Date: 17 February 2023
Volume: 15
Number: 4
ISSN: 2071-1050
Rights: © 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Jonathan Gallacher
Date Added: 18 Apr 2023 09:21
Last Modified: 18 Apr 2023 09:21
URI: https://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/48762

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