Sustainable 4D printing of magneto-electroactive shape memory polymer composites

Lalegani Dezaki, M. ORCID: 0000-0001-5680-1550 and Bodaghi, M. ORCID: 0000-0002-0707-944X, 2023. Sustainable 4D printing of magneto-electroactive shape memory polymer composites. The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 126 (1-2), pp. 35-48. ISSN 0268-3768

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Typical techniques for creating synthetic morphing structures suffer from a compromise between quick shape change and geometric complexity. A novel approach is proposed for encoding numerous shapes and forms by magneto-electroactive shape memory polymer composite (SMPC) structures and integrating sustainability with 4D printing (4DP) technology. Electrically driven, remote controllability, and quick reaction are the features of these sustainable composite structures. Low-cost 4D-printed SMPC structures can be programmed remotely at high temperatures to achieve multi-stable shapes and can snap repeatedly between all programmed temporary and permanent configurations. This allows for multiple designs in a single structure without wasting material. The strategy is based on a knowledge of SMPC mechanics, magnetic response, and the manufacturing idea underlying fused deposition modelling (FDM). Iron-filled magnetic polylactic acid (MPLA) and carbon black-filled conductive PLA (CPLA) composite materials are investigated in terms of microstructure properties, composite interface, and mechanical properties. Characterisation studies are carried out to identify how to control the structure with a low magnetic field. The shape morphing of magneto-electroactive SMPC structures is studied. FDM is used to 4D print MPLA and CPLA adaptive structures with 1D/2D-to-2D/3D shapeshifting by the magnetic field. The benefits of switchable multi-stable structures are reducing material waste and effort/energy and increasing efficiency in sectors such as packaging.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Creators: Lalegani Dezaki, M. and Bodaghi, M.
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC
Date: May 2023
Volume: 126
Number: 1-2
ISSN: 0268-3768
Rights: © The Author(s) 2023. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Laura Ward
Date Added: 18 Apr 2023 09:53
Last Modified: 18 Apr 2023 09:53

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