4D printing for vascular tissue engineering: progress and challenges

Zeenat, L., Zolfagharian, A., Sriya, Y., Sasikumar, S., Bodaghi, M. ORCID: 0000-0002-0707-944X and Pati, F., 2023. 4D printing for vascular tissue engineering: progress and challenges. Advanced Materials Technologies. ISSN 2365-709X

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The hierarchical network of blood vessels comprises the larger vessels (veins and arteries), the smaller ones (venules and arterioles), and the thinnest capillaries. The proper functioning of most tissues in the body relies on vascularization, which is meant for the diffusion of gases, nutrients, and harmful waste. However, it is known that cell survival is compromised as the diffusion of oxygen is limited beyond 100–200 µm and damage can occur at any level of the complex system of the vascular network, as is the case in cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and neurovascular diseases that recur and progress with age. These may prove fatal, hence the need for vascular tissue engineering (VTE) arises. VTE mainly focuses on the fabrication of vascular constructs using natural, synthetic material, or a combination of both using various techniques. The construct is expected to integrate and anastomose with the host vasculature. 4D bioprinting is an emerging field that allows the fabrication of hollow tubes employing different materials that respond to different stimuli. This review is a comprehensive summary of the major techniques employed in VTE and the recent technique of 4D bioprinting foreseen to revolutionize the field.

Item Type: Journal article
Publication Title: Advanced Materials Technologies
Creators: Zeenat, L., Zolfagharian, A., Sriya, Y., Sasikumar, S., Bodaghi, M. and Pati, F.
Publisher: Wiley
Date: 7 May 2023
ISSN: 2365-709X
Rights: © 2023 The Authors. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Jeremy Silvester
Date Added: 12 May 2023 09:20
Last Modified: 12 May 2023 09:20
URI: https://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/48945

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