Computational models of object motion detectors accelerated using FPGA technology

Baptista Machado, P.M., 2021. Computational models of object motion detectors accelerated using FPGA technology. PhD, Nottingham Trent University.

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The detection of moving objects is a trivial task when performed by vertebrate retinas, yet a complex computer vision task. This PhD research programme has made three key contributions, namely: 1) a multi-hierarchical spiking neural network (MHSNN) architecture for detecting horizontal and vertical movements, 2) a Hybrid Sensitive Motion Detector (HSMD) algorithm for detecting object motion and 3) the Neuromorphic Hybrid Sensitive Motion Detector (NeuroHSMD) , a real-time neuromorphic implementation of the HSMD algorithm.

The MHSNN is a customised 4 layers Spiking Neural Network (SNN) architecture designed to reflect the basic connectivity, similar to canonical behaviours found in the majority of vertebrate retinas (including human retinas). The architecture, was trained using images from a custom dataset generated in laboratory settings. Simulation results revealed that each cell model is sensitive to vertical and horizontal movements, with a detection error of 6.75% contrasted against the teaching signals (expected output signals) used to train the MHSNN. The experimental evaluation of the methodology shows that the MH SNN was not scalable because of the overall number of neurons and synapses which lead to the development of the HSMD.

The HSMD algorithm enhanced an existing Dynamic Background subtraction (DBS) algorithm using a customised 3-layer SNN. The customised 3-layer SNN was used to stabilise the foreground information of moving objects in the scene, which improves the object motion detection. The algorithm was compared against existing background subtraction approaches, available on the Open Computer Vision (OpenCV) library, specifically on the 2012 Change Detection (CDnet2012) and the 2014 Change Detection (CDnet2014) benchmark datasets. The accuracy results show that the HSMD was ranked overall first and performed better than all the other benchmarked algorithms on four of the categories, across all eight test metrics. Furthermore, the HSMD is the first to use an SNN to enhance the existing dynamic background subtraction algorithm without a substantial degradation of the frame rate, being capable of processing images 720 × 480 at 13.82 Frames Per Second (fps) (CDnet2014) and 720 × 480 at 13.92 fps (CDnet2012) on a High Performance computer (96 cores and 756 GB of RAM). Although the HSMD analysis shows good Percentage of Correct Classifications (PCC) on the CDnet2012 and CDnet2014, it was identified that the 3-layer customised SNN was the bottleneck, in terms of speed, and could be improved using dedicated hardware.

The NeuroHSMD is thus an adaptation of the HSMD algorithm whereby the SNN component has been fully implemented on dedicated hardware [Terasic DE10-pro Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) board]. Open Computer Language (OpenCL) was used to simplify the FPGA design flow and allow the code portability to other devices such as FPGA and Graphical Processing Unit (GPU). The NeuroHSMD was also tested against the CDnet2012 and CDnet2014 datasets with an acceleration of 82% over the HSMD algorithm, being capable of processing 720 × 480 images at 28.06 fps (CDnet2012) and 28.71 fps (CDnet2014).

Item Type: Thesis
Creators: Baptista Machado, P.M.
Date: July 2021
Rights: The copyright in this work is held by the author. You may copy up to 5% of this work for private study, or personal, non-commercial research. Any re-use of the information contained within this document should be fully referenced, quoting the author, title, university, degree level and pagination. Queries or requests for any other use, or if a more substantial copy is required, should be directed to the author.
Divisions: Schools > School of Science and Technology
Record created by: Jeremy Silvester
Date Added: 02 Jun 2023 13:13
Last Modified: 02 Jun 2023 13:13

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